The publishing process begins with structural editing, leading to a final draft ready for polishing. Line editing comes next, which is often combined with copyediting, the last editorial step before the document is imported to page layout software or coded with HTML/XML and formatted with all its text and graphics in place. Proofreading is done on the formatted print or Web pages to ensure everything is correct before publishing.

I follow the Professional Editorial Standards of the Editors’ Association of Canada.

Editorial Assessment

If you think you might need an editor, but you’re not sure where to start, I’ll give you some expert advice.

  • reading the document (or outline or other preliminary material) to get a sense of its purpose, organization, style, and tone
  • providing an editorial plan that describes what tasks are needed with a timeline and workflow for completing the project

Structural/Developmental Editing

Each document is unique when it comes to structural editing; the process can be very different from one project to another. These are the tasks most commonly associated with structural editing; I’ll work with you to determine the approach that will create the best document for your message and your audience.

  • developing a document outline from concept and notes
  • restructuring an outline or a document for logical order, flow, balance, and coherence
  • creating a template and layout for a modular document, based on information mapping and document design principles
  • combining material from different sources
  • integrating new material for revised or re-purposed text
  • developing graphics and tables
  • creating bibliographies, references, and notes
  • flagging quoted material that needs permission from its copyright holder
  • adapting print material for the Web and vice versa

Line (Stylistic) Editing

In line editing, I scrutinize the composition of each paragraph and sentence.

  • editing for concise, clear, bias-free text
  • creating transitions for flow and coherence between paragraphs and sentences
  • ensuring variety in sentence construction while maintaining consistency of voice and tone
  • checking that vocabulary and sentence length and complexity are appropriate for the required reading level


As I copyedit, I closely read every sentence, word, character, and punctuation mark.

  • editing for grammar, spelling, consistency, accuracy, completeness, and adherence to a style guide
  • checking spelling of names and internal consistency of facts
  • ensuring graphics and tables are consistent with text and labelled and numbered correctly


After the document is formatted for print or the Web, I read it thoroughly and check all the details of the layout.

  • reading for grammar and spelling
  • ensuring graphics and tables appear correctly
  • checking page numbers, table of contents, headers and footers

Production Editing

A production editor manages the project as the final draft makes its way toward publication.

  • supervising copyediting and proofreading
  • managing graphics and permissions
  • overseeing and checking formatting and layout to final pages


I’ll write or revise reports, manuals, and Web text, based on research notes or other materials provided by subject matter experts.